Crown, Veneer Lumineer, those are strange terms that one can come across, or hear at the dental office. What are they?

They are actually methods of preserving / restoring a tooth.

A crown is a prosthetic restoration used to entirely cover or cap a damaged tooth. Besides strengthening a damaged tooth , a crown can be used to improve its appearance, shape or alignment. A crown can also be placed on top of an implant to provide a tooth like shape and structure for function.

Your dentist may recommend a crown to

  • replace a large filling when there isnt enough tooth remaining.
  • protect a weak tooth from fracturing
  • restore a fractured tooth
  • attach a bridge
  • cover a dental implant
  • cover a tooth that has had a root canal treatment.

How a crown is fit

Visit 1. On your first visit to the dentist, the tooth is prepared and an impression is taken.

  1. step1 : After numbing the area the dentist trims some tooth structure ,just enough to provide space for the crown to fit in. This is also done to provide adequate strength and give room for proper shape.
  2. Step2: After the tooth is reshaped and impression is taken by the dentist.
  3. Step 3: Shade selection with your dentist, to make sure that it looks as natural as possible , similar to remaining teeth
  4. Step 4: A temporary tooth is made on the chair to replace the tooth while the impression is being sent to the laboratory.

Visit 2.

  1. On your second visit, the temporary tooth is removed.
  2. The permanent crown is fitted, and occlusion is tested using an articulation paper.
  3. Once both doctor and patient is satisfied, the crown is cemented tp the tooth.

Crowns can be of different materials such as metal , ceramic or ceramic over metal.


Dental Veneer are tiny shells of porcelain that are custom made to fit over teeth providing a natural attractive look. they can be used to fix chipped stained misaligned worn down uneven or abnormally spaced teeth. Veneers are difficult to stain , making them popular for people seeking a perfect smile while keeping as much sound tooth structure as possible.

Procedure for getting a veneer

Getting a veneer usually takes 3 sittings with the dentist.

The first one is consultative where a dentist examines the teeth to make sure if it is appropriate and discuss the procedure and planning .

If a different shape is desired like the case I am working on at the moment, then at first appointment an impression is taken for study model and sent to the laboratory and a wax up is made.

At second appointment, if the patient validates the projected result, the dentist will shave a little bit of enamel from the tooth surface. This will be equal to the thickness of the veneer that will be added on the tooth.  Next an impression will be taken and sent to the dental laboratory where a the prosthesist will fabricate the veneer. The dentist will put a temporary veneer on your tooth. And you will be recalled in about a week time.

After a week, the temporary veneer is removed and the permanent veneer is cemented. The dentist will tell you a list of precautions to be taken.

Lumineers on the other hand are very very thin shell like structures placed on the teeth without the need of shaving the tooth. This is done in very specific cases. And very few laboratories do it in the Indian Ocean do it.

Personally the laboratory I send my works to do Emax Veneers.

IPS e.max Lithium Disilicate

Lithium disilicate (LS2) glass-ceramic is ideally suitable for the fabrication of monolithic restorations or veneered restorations in the anterior and posterior region. Due to its natural-looking tooth colouring and excellent light-optical properties, this material produces impressive results.

Years of clinical experience
The material is used in the dental laboratory in conjunction with either press or CAD/CAM technology. Years of clinical experience confirm the high strength of 500 MPa* for IPS e.max lithium disilicate. The outstanding performance of the material is based on a combination of excellent flexural strength and high fracture toughness adjusted to the given dental requirements. The clinical success of the material attests to its quality. Furthermore, these properties allow you to work according to the requirements of conservative dentistry. Depending on the patient situation, the restorations may be veneered in a highly esthetic manner or, if fabricated as monolithic restorations, they will be stained.

Patients with devitalized teeth
Even if the preparations demonstrate a dark shade (e.g. as a result of discolouration or titanium abutments), all-ceramic restorations may be used. In this case, it is important for you to inform your laboratory about the die shade, and the dental technicians then selects the IPS e.max lithium disilicate material in the required opacity in order to design the true-to-nature esthetic appearance.


  • Veneers (≥ 0.3 mm)
  • Inlays and onlays
  • Occlusal veneers, partial crowns
  • Minimally invasive crowns (≥ 1 mm)
  • Implant superstructures
  • Hybrid abutment solutions
  • Three-unit bridges up to the second premolar as the terminal abutment


  • Excellent esthetics and high strength (500 MPa*)
  • Versatile applications and extensive indication range
  • Minimally invasive preparation and adhesive cementation of crowns with a layer thickness of 1 mm
  • Clinical long-term success and scientifically documented results
  • Natural-looking esthetics irrespective of the preparation shade
  • Adhesive, self-adhesive or conventional cementation depending on the indication

* Mean biaxial flexural strength (IPS e.max CAD 530 MPa, IPS e.max Press 470 MPa). Source: R&D Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein

Below are more information about the materials used. Please do not hesitate to contact me if you have more questions.

Brochure for patient information.

Brochure for dentist 

Lab to dentist

Video of Crown fabrication at the lab


Hello all!!

Sometimes we can write a lot, but in the end a picture speaks louder, and easier to explain whatever is happening.

In this post I will put some pictures to illustrate progression of caries, to illustrate gum disease hence importance of prophylaxis treatment, the tooth eruption chart, so that parents know what to expect and at about what period etc.


old amalgam fillings vs tooth coloured restorations

 How to replace tooth/teeth

1. If the root is still present and can be restored, then a crown can be made. (1st picture)
2. second picture illustrates the use of post and core under a crown if the tooth structure remaining is not very strong.


if a tooth has been extracted then
a. a bridge of at least 3 units can be used as fixed option
b. an implant
c. a removable denture




When the gums start to become red and bleed , it is one of the signs that gum diseases have begun. We can at the office do prophylaxis treatment, through scaling/ root planning.

At home to maintain the hygiene, brushing and flossing should be continued.




Deep caries in Primary teeth should be treated too


















Happy  Divali Friends

I hope you had a great one!! We can have a good Divali and healthy teeth if we follow the following tips :

  • Sweets and chocolates are an integral part of our celebrations. Enjoy your Divali cakes, but just ensure to brush twice a day, in the morning and at bedtime. Make it a habit to floss as well.
  • Use fluoridated toothpaste as they prevent bacteria buildup in your mouth and help prevent cavities.
  • During the day, if you cannot brush, have a glass of water after eating sweets. Having a glass of water helps wash away the sticky sweets. Not to forget, drinking water even helps you control weight.
  • You may chew upon Sugar free gums after eating sweets as the sugar free gum helps in cleaning the mouth and increase saliva flow. Increased saliva flow increases our ability to fight bacteria and avoid cavities.
  • Avoid fizzy drinks; they are  bad for our health.
  • Avoid sweets just before bedtime.
  • Take special care of your kids as they tend to skip brushing during festivities. Remind them to brush and floss at morning and bedtime. Ask them to rinse after eating sweets. Get them a tooth brush of their favorite character to motivate them to brush.

Toothache is the worst thing to happen during Diwali time and especially when others are savoring on Diwali sweets.

Have a fun filled, prosperous and safe Diwali!!!!!

Found this post informative, please feel free to share

People often decide to have their wisdom teeth removed, as they can cause painful, aching gums. How can wisdom teeth pain be relieved at home before their removal?

Wisdom teeth are the last teeth to break through the gums. They grow at the very back of a person’s mouth. There are normally four wisdom teeth in total, with one in each of the furthest corners of the top and bottom gums.

Pain in the wisdom teeth may resolve on its own, but in some cases it will need either active home management or treatment in a hospital or dental surgery.

This article looks at options to relieve the pain as well as the causes.

Home remedies

Impacted wisdom teeth may cause pain, aches, and tenderness. Ultimately, removing the wisdom teeth can help resolve these problems.

In the meantime, there are several over-the-counter medical treatments and natural home remedies available.

1. Numbing gel

A numbing dental gel may help reduce feeling in the gums and dull the pain. These gels are available over the counter or online and contain the active ingredient benzocaine.

Most dental gels can be applied directly to the affected gums throughout the day. However, it is important for a person to follow the instructions included in the product. Also, it is possible to be allergic to benzocaine.

2. Ibuprofen

Ibuprofen is an over-the-counter pain relief medication that helps reduce inflammation.

Taking the recommended dose on the packet may help relieve discomfort. It can also reduce inflammation of the gums associated with wisdom teeth development.

Ibuprofen or other NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) may be effective pain management until a person can see a dentist for treatment.

3. Ice pack

Applying an ice pack to the jaw can help reduce inflammation, which in turn may relieve pain. Using ice can also have a numbing effect.

A person can try holding an ice pack with a tea towel around it against their jaw for up to 15 minutes.

The ice pack can be applied off and on with 15 minute breaks until the pain has subsided.

4. Salt water rinse

This is one of the simplest advice and my most favourite and effective one til date (Tested and proven on myself)

Woman gargling and rinsing her mouth with salt water.

Rinsing the mouth with salt water several times a day may help to reduce symptoms such as pain.

Salt water has natural disinfectant properties. A 2010 study showed that rinsing the mouth with salt water can help reduce bacteria.

Sometimes, a build-up of bacteria in the broken gums around wisdom teeth can be the cause of pain. As such, rinsing with salt water may help treat the infection and reduce the discomfort.

To make the salt water rinse, a person can dissolve a few tablespoons of salt into a glass of freshly boiled water. When the water has cooled slightly, it can be swirled around the mouth for several minutes, then spat out.

A person may want to rinse their mouth with salt water two or three times a day, or until the pain starts to reduce.

5. Cloves

Research into the effectiveness of cloves to relieve wisdom tooth pain is positive. A 2006 study showed that there is promise for cloves as a topical pain reliever due to their numbing effect.

To try this home remedy, a person can use a whole clove or clove oil. If using a whole clove they should:

  • place the clove over the wisdom tooth that is causing pain
  • hold it in place by closing their jaw, but without chewing
  • leave it there until the pain reduces and then spit it out

To try this remedy using clove oil, a person can:

  • put a few drops of clove oil on a ball of cotton wool
  • put the cotton wool on the wisdom tooth that is causing pain
  • hold the cotton wool in place until the pain reduces and then remove it

Both clove oil and whole cloves are available to purchase online.

6. Onion

2007 study found that onions have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. These advantages of onions mean they can help reduce swelling and fight bacterial infections.

To use onions as a home remedy, a person should:

  • cut off a piece of onion
  • chew the onion on the side of the mouth that has the pain
  • keep chewing for a few minutes until pain reduces and then spit out the onion

This process allows the juice from the onion to go into the gum so that it can reduce inflammation and bacteria.

7. Tea bags

Teabag in a cup of herbal tea.

Tea bags should only be placed in the mouth when completely cooled.

2016 study found that tannins contained in tea bags have antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. This means tea bags may help reduce swelling and fight bacterial infections.

To use tea bags as a home remedy, a person should make a cup of tea and put the cup in the fridge with the tea bag left in it. Once the tea is cold, the tea bag can be taken out and placed inside the mouth where the pain is located.

No milk, cream, or sugar should be added to the tea.


In some cases, home remedies may not alleviate the pain of an impacted wisdom tooth.

A wisdom tooth may be removed in a dental surgery by a dentist or in a hospital by a dental surgeon. Local anesthetic will be injected into the affected area to numb the pain of surgery. The practitioner will apply pressure to the tooth to lossen it from its socket.

Small cuts are made around the tooth, and the wisdom tooth may be cut into smaller pieces before removal. The procedure is a short one that normally takes only a few minutes but can last up to 20 minutes and sometimes more.

The gum is normally only sore from the time until anesthetic wears off until around three days later, but the pain sometimes lasts for two weeks.


When a person’s wisdom teeth are coming through, there are practical things they can do to make it less likely that their gums become infected. These actions include:

  • Practicing good oral hygiene: Brushing teeth twice a day, flossing, and using mouthwash can help reduce the bacteria in the mouth that cause infections.
  • Drinking plenty of water: This helps to flush food and bacteria away from the teeth and gums.
  • Avoid sugary foods: Sweet foods can get stuck inside the broken gums, encouraging bacteria to grow.


Wisdom teeth on an x-ray of the mouth, and a gloved hand looking at a model of the lower teeth on top.

Wisdom teeth usually emerge after all the adult teeth. They may emerge at an awkward angle, or there may not be enough room for them.

Wisdom teeth normally push their way through the gums when a person is between the ages of 17 and 21. The sensation of a tooth pushing through the gums can be painful.

In addition, there is often no room for the wisdom teeth in a person’s mouth, as the adult teeth have already developed. This lack of space may cause wisdom teeth to come through at an angle, or getting stuck and not come through fully.

When this happens, the wisdom teeth are impacted. Having impacted wisdom teeth leaves the gums vulnerable, as the surface breaks and the teeth are not fully through. Food and bacteria can get trapped in the gums and lead to several issues, including:

  • gum disease
  • infections
  • abscesses
  • cysts


While the remedies in this article have been proven to reduce pain caused by wisdom teeth, they are only short-term solutions.

When wisdom teeth become impacted, a dentist will normally advise that they be removed to provide long-term relief.


source: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/319461.php

I’ve been asked a couple of times about herbal toothpaste and if they are efficient. I came across this article from the daily mail UK. I shall test some products myself and let you know. For now here is the article.

Should you use herbal toothpaste?

by CHARLOTTE HARDING, femail.co.uk
Alternative medicine seems to have reached every area of healthcare. And oral hygiene is no exception.There are now a growing number of natural toothpastes on supermarket and health shop shelves. Demand is growing to such an extent that even the mainstream brand Colgate has just launched its own variety.

But who are these toothpastes aimed at? And do they really work?

Makers of the natural pastes use a wide range of different herbs which they claim mimic the functions of traditional toothpastes – the ability to fight plaque, freshen breath and prevent gum disease.

They claim customers prefer them to traditional toothpastes for a variety of reasons. Many are apparently opting for them because they are not tested on animals.

Others, keen to protect the environment or who are sensitive to the ingredients in traditional toothpastes, are attracted to the fact that they contain no artificial colours or flavourings.

People who use homeopathic medicines are also attracted to toothpastes that don’t contain mint because practitioners claim the herb may interfere with the effectiveness of their treatment.

Many of the herbal toothpastes on the market also boast they are ‘fluoride free’. Although fluoride has been championed for years as the best way of combating tooth decay by increasing the resistance of enamel to the acid produced by bacteria in the mouth, there has been some controversy over its use in recent years.

A growing body of experts claim if children take too much fluoride when they are young they can suffer a condition called fluorosis which causes teeth to become mottled.

In some areas of Britain where fluoride is already added to the water supply many parents are turning to toothpastes without fluoride. Interest in this area has grown so much that Kingfisher, one of the country’s biggest manufacturers of herbal toothpastes, now sell more non-fluoride than fluoride products.

Despite this, both the British Dental Association, the organisation representing dentists across Britain, and the British Dental Health Foundation, the independent charity representing consumers, recommend that people should use toothpastes containing fluoride.

Although many natural health practitioners are recommending herbal toothpastes and despite anecdotal evidence that they work, many of the health claims made for them have not been clinically proven.

Only one range of herbal toothpastes has had it’s health claims approved by the BDHF – Kingfisher.

‘Consumers need to be wary of claims made by manufacturers about the benefits of their products,’ said a BDHF spokesman. ‘If a product carries the Foundation accreditation logo a customer can be sure that a scientific testing supports any claims made on the packaging and have not been sensationalised.’

But natural health expert Maryon Stewart, author of the Natural Health Bible, says the lack of clinical trials should not necessarily put people off using herbal toothpastes.

‘Clinical trials cost a lot of money and many of the smaller health companies do not have the money to carry them out,’ she says. ‘Many of the natural products in herbal toothpastes have been used for many years by people to great effect. I think some people would be surprised by the amount of chemicals used in some toothpastes – but herbal ones are completely natural.’

Do I need to clean my baby’s gums before his teeth come in?

Yes. Even before your baby sports his first tooth, it’s a good idea to get into the habit of wiping his gums with gauze or a soft wet washcloth during bath time.

Continue reading “Caring for your baby’s gums and emerging teeth”